9th - 13th Century
In the ‘liber ignium ad comburendas hostes’, Marcus Graecus describes a black powder mixture of six parts
saltpeter, one part sulfur, two parts charcoal.
According to Vosius delicate Chinese artillery was made in bronze.
Arabs used firearms against Spaniards and Normans in Lisbon.
The so called Greek fire was used in the Port of Dieppe against English ships. It was used without artillery.
In the book ‘Opus Majus’ the Franciscan monk Roger Bacon from Ilchester, England, (1214 to 1294) a recipe
for black powder is men-tioned: Seven parts saltpeter, five parts sulfur, five parts charcoal.
In ‘De mirabilibus mundi’ Alberta Magnus, bishop of Regensburg descri-bes rockets with propellant powder and
fire ignition compound. The compound consisted of saltpeter, sulfur and linseed oil with high saltpeter content
and less sulfur.