9th - 13th Century Ca. 846: In the ‘liber ignium ad comburendas hostes’, Marcus Graecus describes a black powder mixture of six parts saltpeter, one part sulfur, two parts charcoal. Ca. 1055: According to Vosius delicate Chinese artillery was made in bronze. 1147: Arabs used firearms against Spaniards and Normans in Lisbon. 1193: The so called Greek fire was used in the Port of Dieppe against English ships. It was used without artillery. Ca. 1260: In the book ‘Opus Majus’ the Franciscan monk Roger Bacon from Ilchester, England, (1214 to 1294) a recipe for black powder is men-tioned: Seven parts saltpeter, five parts sulfur, five parts charcoal. Ca. 1280: In ‘De mirabilibus mundi’ Alberta Magnus, bishop of Regensburg descri-bes rockets with propellant powder and fire ignition compound. The compound consisted of saltpeter, sulfur and linseed oil with high saltpeter content and less sulfur.